Slopes, embankments, and retaining wall structures for infrastructure projects frequently must be constructed on sites with less than ideal soil conditions. When unsuitable soils are encountered the goal of the geotechnical engineer is to provide low risk, cost-effective solutions to remedy issues related to settlement, stability, applied loads and bearing capacity. When these concerns are present, it can be desirable to use fill materials with low densities in order to reduce the magnitude of the applied loads. Otherwise, the use of natural aggregates or quarried select fill materials may require more costly ground modification techniques to address the project requirements. This presentation will explore the use of expanded shale and clay lightweight aggregates as a cost-effective solution on sites with challenging soil conditions. The content will include a general manufacturing overview, common ground modification methods and the use of lightweight fill solutions as part of a load reduction strategy. Relevant applications will be reviewed along with select project case histories.